KATHAK

Kathak dance form has originated from North India. It is one of the eight forms of Indian classical dances. This is one of the oldest form of dance. From 16th century onwards, it absorbed few features of Persian dance and Central Asian dance through royal courts of Mughal era.

This dance form has its traces from nomadic bards of olden North India. It was known as Kathakas. This means stories. It was performed in village squares an d temples mostly mythological and moral stories were recited with a beautiful mix of hand gestures and facial expressions were the main attractions. The stories were enliven with instrumental and vocal music.

The three major schools (gharanas) of Kathak , which are mainly followed today are school of Jaipur, Lucknow and Banaras. One more gharana
 
formed with an amalgamation of all the above said three forms later which is known as Raigarh gharana. But it is less prominent and famous for its special compositions.

Kathaka denotes the person who tells the story. Later it is simplified and became Kathak.

BHARATNATAYAM

Natya or Dance is one of the main branch of Fine Arts. Bharat Natyam is also one of the most popular dance form and it is a way of worshipping the lord. It can be considered as a combination of mythological, historical, cultural and sociological heritage and traditionally passed on to posterity. Dance in any form gives lot of happiness to the performer as well as the audience who enjoy it with involvement. It is accepted universally as a major performing art form which has music , rhythm, expressions and emotions.

“ Natya Sastra “ was written by the sage Bharatha Muni about 2000 years ago. Bharat Natyam incorporates most of the rules specified in the Natya Sastra.

 
Hence the name “Bharat Natyam”. It is one of the oldest form of dance and it is proven that it has therapeutically lot of benefits to the human body. Each movement in Bharat natyam is well defined and gives benefits to the system. 

Bharata Natyam has an important place in our Indian culture. Bharat Natyam incorporates major three forms of arts in it. The Nataka, Natya and Sangeetha.

What we call as Iyal, Isai and Natakam. The Natya Sastra explains various aspects of theatrical arts, dance, drama and music. Bhatat Natyam equllay involves dance and music. Over the period of time Bharat Natyam has evolved and has taken various interesting improvisations and creative additions to it by many eminent artists, who have contributed their life time for this wonderful art.

The main three aspects of Bharatanatyam are: Nritta, Nritya and Natya.

Nritta is rhythmical.
Natya is the dramatic art, and is a language of gestures, poses and mime
Nritya is a combination of Nritta and Natya 

The term Bharata Natyam is codified by taking the initial syllables of Bhava (Expressions), Raga (Music) and Tala (Rhythm).

ODISSI

Odissi is one of the oldest dance form of India with rich tradition. Archaeological evidences show the arts’ age and evolution. The traditional dance form of Orissa, it has its origin to the temple dances of the temple dancers. We can find mentions about Odissi in inscriptions, depictions on sculptures. In temples like Brahmeswara, Sun Temple at konark the sculptures an depictions are found.. In the 1950s, the entire dance form was revitalised, thanks to the Abhinaya Chandrika and sculpted dance poses found in temples.

The Oddisi seen today is a result of reconstruction from various dance traditions of Orissa. The Mahais, the Odissi as we know it today is the result of a long process of reconstruction from various dance traditions of Orissa, for instance the Maharis, the Goti puas and the Bhandanritya
 
traditions. Maharis are the counterparts of the Devadasis of the South. Gotipuas are men who dressed as female dancers and danced like the Maharis.

While the form is curvaceous, concentrating on the tribhang or the division of the body into three parts, head, bust and torso; the mudras and the expressions are similar to those of Bharatnatyam. Odissi performances are replete with lores of the eighth incarnation of Vishnu, Lord Krishna. It is a soft, lyrical classical dance which depicts the ambience of Orissa and the philosophy of its most popular deity, Lord Jagannath.

Odissi is based on the popular devotion to Lord Krishna and the verses of the Sanskrit play Geet Govinda are used to depict the love and devotion to God. The Odissi dancers use their head, bust and torso in soft flowing movements to express specific moods and emotions.

HINDUSTANI CLASSICAL MUSIC

Indian Classical music follows richest tradition and very old . Mainly Indian classical music is of two types namely Carnatic music and Hindustani music. Where Carnatic is from the Southern parts of India an Hindustani is indigenous to the north.

Hindustani music is based on Ragas. A raga is formed with the combination of notes. The basic seven note are sa,re,ga,ma,pa,dha,ni. In these notes the Sa and Pa are constant and all the other notes can have variations. Which can be in major and minor tones. So number of combinations can be generated. There are ten basic scales. Ragas are evolved from here. A raga is formed with a minimum of five notes.
 
 
The ascent and descent notes of the raga gives distinctive character to each raga.These need not be linear. Melody is derived by improving the raga with in the given scale. The improvisations can be rhythm bound or sometimes free from the rhythm. Formal compositions are juxtaposed to improvised portion. Khyal and Dhrupad are two major types of compositions within the Hindustani genre. Of the two, Dhrupad is an older form and requires rigourous training in rhythm control as well as voice culture. Khyal developed as a more popular alternative as it contains both slow and lively compositions, though it retains its totally classical character.